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The Center for Southeast Asian Studies > Ub-ufok Ad Fiallig Overview > Teaching Modules > Module 4. Linmipaw: Ritual Practices and their Value in Contemporary Society

Module 4. Linmipaw: Ritual Practices and their Value in Contemporary Society


Limnipaw is a story about a fateful encounter between an Ifiallig man and an enchantress who forced him into marriage.

Learning Objective

  1. Students learn how indigenous knowledge and practices increase their understanding of their cultures.


Indigenous knowledge is based on the natural environment. In the Ifiallig culture, the forests is a sacred place where gods and goddesses live. This is also where the Ifiallig offer sacrifices so that they will be favored with bountiful hunt. There is a thin veil between mortals and immortals where gods marry humans.

Library Resources:

Ancient stories of the Cordilleras


Apor – hunting lodge

Allukoy – engkantada, enchantress

Pakikiramay– empathy or sharing in the grief sometimes through monetary or emotional support, or by helping out in the arrangements


  1. Students watch or read Limnipaw.
  2. Ask students to describe the characters.
  3. Students discuss the cultural practices of the Ifiallig. What Ifiallig cultural practices were shown in the video? Describe a typical day for an Ifiallig hunter. Describe Ifiallig burial customs. How do you show pakikiramay (empathy) in your culture? What beliefs are associated with death and burial in your culture?
  4. Discuss indigenous beliefs. What are the Ifallig’s beliefs on the spiritual world? What is the enchanted world like? How do these belief affect present day practices? How are they similar or different from your modern day beliefs? How about  in other parts of the Philippines and other cultures?
  5. Describe the allukoy and her attitude towards marriage? Would you do the same thing? How would you respond to the allukoy? What does it say about gender relations in their society?

Culminating Activity / Output

  1. Read this excerpt from the epic of Aliguyon and watch the video clip from “Mountains of Water.”
  2. How would you describe Aliguyon’s mother?
  3. How would you describe the gender relationships in Ifugao society according to the epic?
  4. Write a “Dear Abby”/”Delilah” letter to Aliguyon’s mother describing a relationship problem (real or imagined).
  5. In class, read out your letter. Other classmates will respond as Aliguyon’s mother would.