Archaeology Teacher’s Manual
This webpage is designed for elementary school teachers teaching early Filipino history/Social Studies in Ifugao, Philippines. The purpose is to provide teachers with an overview of the archaeological findings of the Old Kiyyangan Village, and instructional guidelines for teaching early Ifugao history through archaeology. Teachers are provided instructions on how to present three archaeology modules, the background and rationale for each archaeology activity. This also provides classroom materials to explain archaeological concepts, terms, and methodologies as they relate to the prehistory of the Old Kiyyangan Village.
Although the manual is meant for upper-level elementary social studies courses (Grades V and VI), its modules can be modified to suit other academic levels as well. The modules complement the Department of Education (DepEd) Core Learning Area Standard of the K-12 Araling Panlipunan curriculum:
Naipamamalas ang pag-unawa sa mga konsepto at isyung pangkasaysayan, pangheograpiya, pang-ekonomiya, pangkultura, pampamahalaan, pansibiko, at panlipunan gamit ang mga kasanayang nalinang sa pag-aaral ng iba’t ibang disiplina at larangan ng araling panlipunan kabilang ang pananaliksik, pagsisiyasat, mapanuring pag-iisip, matalinong pagpapasya, pagkamalikhain, pakikipagkapwa, likas-kayang paggamit ng pinagkukunang-yaman, pakikipagtalastasan at pagpapalawak ng pandaigdigang pananaw upang maging isang mapanuri, mapagnilay, mapanagutan, produktibo, makakalikasan, makabansa at makatao na papanday sa kinabukasan ng mamamayan ng bansa at daigdig.
The OKV modules were semi-structured according to Alvenia P. Palu-ay’s 2010 Hekasi Serye 5, Makabayan: Kasaysayang Pilipino, Manwal ng Guro para sa Ikalimang Baitang. The module enumerates the learning objectives (Layuning Tiyak). The three main categories of objectives follow the AP teacher’s manual, namely comprehension (pangkaalaman), values (pandamdamin), and proficiency (pangkasanayan).
Why use an archaeology approach?
Archaeology is the study of the human past through material remains. Archaeologists engage with history through hands-on exploration, and this experiential approach to learning history appeals to many elementary school-aged children. The past is so much more interesting when students can see, experience, and relate to what they are learning. The Department of Education’s Araling Panlipunan standards require students to understand historical concepts and issues, and to develop research and investigative skills. It is not enough to know “what happened in history”, but also “how and why these conclusions in history came about”. Archaeology is uniquely geared to answer all these questions, capable of explaining the past by learning from oral histories, employing scientific questions, and applying empirical evidence.
(2010). Hekasi Serye 5. Makabayan: Kasaysayang Pilipino. Manwal ng Guro para sa Ikalimang Baitang. Quezon City: LG&M Corporation.
About the Author
Charmaine Ledesma completed her MA in anthropology at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa in 2017. This webpage follows her capstone project, Enriching cultural heritage: Teaching local history through archaeology in Kiangan, Ifugao, Philippines, in providing an example of place-based archaeology classroom modules in the context of Philippine social studies curriculum.