* Coming of Age: Women’s Colleges in the Philippines During the Post- Marcos Era
* Contested Democracy and The Left in the Philippines After Marcos
* Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism
* The Marcos File: Was He a Philippine Hero or Corrupt Tyrant?
* The Philippines: The Political Economy of Growth and Impoverishment in the Marcos Era
|Coming of Age: Women’s Colleges in the Philippines During the Post- Marcos Era|
In view of the increasing number of Third World countries considering the establishment of women’s colleges to meet the demand for the higher education of women, presenting a case study of two key women’s colleges in the Philippines. Within the context of global, national and local changes since the fall of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986, academic and administrative leaders at two prestigious women’s colleges candidly discuss how their respective institutions adapted to their environments and how the colleges will fare in the future. Preferences for large, coeducational institutions; the emergence of less expensive tertiary institutions; and the downward spiral of a weak national economy combined to destabilized the enrollment base of these colleges. Factors unique to the Philippines including an increasing number of female overseas contract workers; struggles with national language preferences; and the growth of feminism also affected the colleges. In response, the colleges expanded their curricula, chose high-profile presidents, focused on faculty development, and acquired technology. Decision-markers at these colleges will have to continue in their efforts at solidifying their positions in the Philippine higher education system. The book that women’s colleges worldwide must articulate their unique purposes and collaborate with other institutions to strengthen their organizations.
|Contested Democracy and The Left in the Philippines After Marcos|
When people power toppled the dictator Marcos, the Philippines was considered a shining example of the restoration of democracy. Since 1986, however, the Philippines has endured continuing political and social unrest and encountered tremendous obstacles to the consolidation and deepening of democracy. Scholars have called post-Marcos Philippines an elite democracy, a cacique democracy, or a patrimonial oligarchic state.
In this volume, Nathan Gilbert Quimpo disputes such characterizations of democracy. He argues that the deepening of democracy in the country involves the transformation of an elite-dominated formal democracy into a participatory and egalitarian one. He focuses on emergent, democratically oriented, leftist parties and groups that seek to transform the formal democracy of the Philippines into a more substantial one and shows the difficulties they have encountered in fighting patronage politics. The complexity of the process to deepen democracy in the Philippines becomes evident from Quimpo s exploration of competing notions of democracy, contending versions of the civil society argument, and contending perspectives in governance.
|Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism|
Ferdinand Marcos came to power in the Philippines in a coup d?tat in 1972 and ruled absolutely, in the name of order, until his dramatic overthrow in February of 1986. This study examines how the authoritarian regime of Marcos remained in power, sometimes in the face of massive opposition, for 14 years. Repressive regimes may seem undesirable, but they are often able to elicit the support of significant sectors of society. Marcos was able to maintain authoritarian rule through the support of bureaucrats, businessmen, and the military–all with the assistance of the United States government. He maintained this network of support through a patron-client system with a centralized bureaucracy as its power and resource base. In order to reward his supporters, he expanded the authority of government. But to minimize the political cost of expansion, he maintained the legal and constitutional forms of democracy. The Philippine experience in despotism is not unique; many Third World countries are under authoritarian rule. This subtle and nuanced analysis, therefore, provides an examination of the levers of power available to absolute rulers, to better understand the political economy of authoritarianism.
|The Marcos File: Was He a Philippine Hero or Corrupt Tyrant?|
|The Philippines: The Political Economy of Growth and Impoverishment in the Marcos Era|
The experience of the Philippines from the 1960s to the 1980s vividly illustrates the interplay between wealth and power in the course of economic development. During this period, the benefits of economic growth conspicuously failed to trickle down. Broad sectors of the Filipino people experienced deepening poverty. Professor Boyce traces this outcome to the country’s economic and political structure, and to the development strategies pursued by the Philippine government and its international backers. Impressive gains in rice production via the ‘green revolution’ failed to translate into less hunger. Profits from the country’s agricultural exports – sugar, coconut, banana, and pineapple – were concentrated in the hands of a few. Forestry exports triggered severe environmental degradation, the main victims of which were the poor. Massive external borrowing financed capital flight rather than productive investment, and left the country with a crushing foreign debt burden. The Philippine experience provides important insights into the political economy of development.